World Mosquito Day 2022 is celebrated on the 20th of August every year. The day is celebrated due to British Doctors. Sir Ronald Ross who discovered in 1897 that female mosquitoes carry malaria to humans. The theme for this year’s World Mosquito Day 2022 is ” Harness innovation to reduce the malaria disease burden and save lives”. Although mosquito-borne diseases can be found all year round, however, they are more prevalent during the monsoon seasons. For India, Malaria, Dengue, Chikungunya, Zika, Filariasis, and Viral Encephalitis are the most commonly reported mosquito-borne diseases.
Epidemics and endemicity are very frequent in our country. India has around 400 species of mosquitoes, and all of them are carriers of infecting organisms, and it is common to see outbreaks of these diseases. The diseases that have been nearly gone are now resurgent because of the resistance that has been created by mosquitoes to pesticides, and a change in their behavior. Dr. N.R. Shetty Dr. N.R. Shetty, Consultant, Internal Medicine, Kokilaben Dhirubhai Ambani Hospital shared her tips on how to protect ourselves from these five mosquito-borne illnesses.
The following are the most frequently reported mosquito-borne diseases:
There are four kinds of malarial protozoa. However, falciparum and vivax are the most frequently associated with protozoa. Falciparum malaria can be vital as it may cause severe complications in the system, including cerebral fever.
The disease can be spread through infected mosquitoes and also through person-to-person transmissions. The symptoms of high fever chill headaches, shivers, and vomiting are typical. Jaundice, low platelet count, and kidney-respiratory problems can occur in some patients, especially when falciparum is the cause.
The most common malaria cases occur in areas with poor hygiene and crowded. The diagnosis is made by symptoms of clinical nature such as fever, fever patterns, blood smears, and malarial antigen tests. It is recommended that blood drawn during fever is the most effective. Along with blood counts electrolytes, kidney and liver function tests could also be performed.
2. Dengue fever
It is caused by the dengue virus. this fever is most common during the monsoon season and in winter. It is usually caused by mosquito bites in the daylight hours.
Dengue can be mild, hemorrhagic, or develop into a dengue shock. The symptoms last for about up to 4-5 days and cause severe headaches muscles-body pain, lower back pain, eye pain, and fatigue as typical symptoms. Itching and skin rashes may be present in certain instances. The risk of bleeding is high from multiple sites and organs, multi-organ failure, lower blood pressure, and collapse could be the result.
Diagnostic signs include abnormal platelet and antigen tests. There are no specific anti-dengue drugs or treatments against viruses, and the treatment is generally chronic, involving hydration as well as blood-platelet transfusions. The most severe cases could require emergency treatment and in these situations, the hospitalization of patients where medical attention is available 24/7 is recommended where the patient is monitored continuously to ensure a faster recovery.
The virus is spread through directly bitten mosquitoes. The symptoms are chills, fever and mild to extreme joint pain, headaches, and skin eruptions. Joint pains that are experienced in this condition can be debilitating and can affect multiple joints for days, weeks, and months and sometimes, even longer.
The diagnosis is determined through IgG, IgM, and RT testing of blood samples with PCR. If there is no specific treatment, treatment can be achieved through the administration of fluids, non-steroidal painkillers as well as antivirals for the management of symptoms.
4. Zika fever
In recent years, occasional instances in the form of Zika infection have also been seen in India. Headache, muscle pain and inflammation of the skin, eye pain, and eyes that are pink are common symptoms of the illness. Also, pregnant women suffering from zika infection might be suffering from miscarriages, birth defects, and miscarriages. defects.
The diagnosis is made through the testing of IgM-ELISA antibodies. Similar to most mosquito-borne disease treatments, this one is symptoms-based. In the course of treatment, any sexual activities that are not protected must be avoided to stop the transmission of the infection.
The infection is transmitted through mosquito bites. Chills, high fever especially in the evening, swelling in the leg or the affected areas, redness, and swelling of the glands like the scrotum are common symptoms. Elephantiasis can be caused by Filariasis.
The diagnosis involves tests for microfilariae in blood, particularly at nighttime when fever is high. The treatment for this condition is based on DCC antibiotics and medication support.
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Prevention of mosquito-borne illnesses:
- Keep your hygiene in check and maintain a clean surrounding
- Wearing appropriate clothing to prevent mosquito bites, and applying creams for the skin to prevent the same
- Utilization of mosquito nets, screens for bed protection, repellents for mosquitoes to stop bites from mosquitoes and transmission of infections
- Spraying appropriate insecticides around the home, in society, and the surrounding environment
- Avoid the storage of water in open areas and water collection areas such as flower pots, rubber tires, glass pieces fountains, etc., and spraying the area with insecticides
- Consult a physician if you have any of the mentioned signs
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